By Dr Ravi Mishra
Vasco-Da-Gama (Goa), September 7 (India Science Wire): Deccan traps are one of the largest volcanic features on the earth. Polygonal patterns and columnar joints in basaltic rocks are the most fascinating structures for geologists and volcanologists. Now Indian scientists have discovered a rare, well developed polygonal column basalt structure in a village in Kolhapur district in Maharashtra.
The newly discovered basalt flow with columnar structures is part of the 65.6 million year-old Panhala Formation, one of the youngest formations of the Deccan Traps.
The basalt columns are present in different stages of disintegration. They rise above an east-west oriented low ridge (about 850 meters above sea level), connecting two laterite-capped tablelands. The 80 to 90 meters thick columnar basalt flow occurs below the laterite, consisting of massive pentagonal columns. The diameter of the pentagonal shaped columns is about one meter. The isolated standing columns of different heights from 1 to 10 meters are also observed in the field.
Deccan Traps are the basaltic lava flows of Cretaceous to Eocene age in the geological time scale. It is the most extensive lava formation of the Peninsular India covering an area of about half a million square kilometers extending over large parts of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and some parts of Telangana and Karnataka. The formation of Deccan traps started about 66.25 million years ago. A series of volcanic eruptions occurred there over a period of 30,000 years. Deccan Traps characteristically show horizontality of lava flows, development of flat-topped hills and step-like terraces. Thin but extensive red-boles separate these horizontal lava flows.
According to the researchers, the well-developed columns separated from each other with the upper horizontal capping of laterite are common in the Deccan flow in Central India but are rare in the nearly two km thick lava flows of Western Ghat escarpment. In Bandivade, the columns are well developed and stout than other sites like the Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland and St Mary's Islands in Karnataka.
The Panhala site is very significant and a potential site for further geological studies. More studies are needed to understand site-specific characteristics of basalt flows and geomorphic factors responsible for differential weathering and erosion.